AJAX请求详解 同步异步 GET和POST


AJAX请求详解 同步异步 GET和POST

  
  上一篇博文(http://www.cnblogs.com/mengdd/p/4191941.html)介绍了AJAX的概念和基本使用,附有一个小例子,下面基于这个例子做一些探讨.
 

同步和异步

     在准备请求的时候,我们给open方法里传入了几个参数,其中第三个参数为true时,表示是异步请求:
//1. prepare request
xmlHttpRequest.open("GET", "AjaxServlet", true);
// XMLHttpRequest.prototype.open = function(method,url,async,user,password) {};

  

  为了模拟服务器的响应,并且不使用缓存内容,我们把服务器代码改成如下,加了5秒延时:

public class HelloAjaxServlet extends HttpServlet {

    protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
        System.out.println("doGet invoked!");
        //mock the processing time of server
        try {
            Thread.sleep(5000L);
        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        //no cache
        response.setHeader("pragma","no-cache");
        response.setHeader("cache-control","no-cache");
        PrintWriter out = response.getWriter();
        out.println("Hello World");
        out.flush();
    }
}

 

  下面就可以比较出同步和异步的差别了:

  xmlHttpRequest.open()方法,第三个参数设置为async=true时,异步:
  点击按钮后过了5秒出现Hello World字样,但是这5秒过程中页面中的其他地方都是不受影响的,可以操作.
 
  xmlHttpRequest.open()方法,第三个参数设置为async=false时,同步:
  同样是点击按钮5秒后出现Hello World字样,但是这5秒中,按钮是不可点击状态,页面不可做其他操作.
  当使用同步设置时,其实不需要写回调函数,直接把响应的操作放在后面的语句即可.
  注:不推荐使用async=false.
 
 

GET和POST

     让我们把原来的程序改得复杂一点,计算两个输入框的值.
     加入两个输入框,然后在发送请求之前获取它们的值:
<body>
    <input type="button" value="get content from server" onclick="ajaxSubmit();"><br>
    <input type="text" value="value1" id="value1Id">
    <input type="text" value="value2" id="value2Id">

    <div id="div1"></div>
</body>

 

     服务器端获取参数值并返回计算结果:
public class HelloAjaxServlet extends HttpServlet {

    protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
        System.out.println("doGet invoked!");
        process(request, response);
    }

    @Override
    protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, IOException {
        System.out.println("doPost invoked!");
        process(req, resp);
    }

    private void process(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException {
        System.out.println("process invoked!");

        String v1 = request.getParameter("v1");
        String v2 = request.getParameter("v2");
        String result = String.valueOf(Integer.valueOf(v1) + Integer.valueOf(v2));

        //mock the processing time of server
//        try {
//            Thread.sleep(5000L);
//        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
//            e.printStackTrace();
//        }
        //no cache
        response.setHeader("pragma", "no-cache");
        response.setHeader("cache-control", "no-cache");
        PrintWriter out = response.getWriter();
        out.println("Hello World: " + result);
        out.flush();
    }
}
 
     首先用GET方法:
     GET方法的参数拼接在url的后面:
xmlHttpRequest.open("GET", "AjaxServlet?v1=" + value1 + "&v2=" + value2, true);//GET
xmlHttpRequest.send(null);//GET
      
     POST方法:
xmlHttpRequest.open("POST", "AjaxServlet", true);//POST
xmlHttpRequest.send("v1=" + value1 + "&v2=" + value2);//POST requset needs params here, for GET, just leave params empty or set it to null.

  注意,使用POST方法提交,在请求发送之前,必须要加上如下一行:

xmlHttpRequest.setRequestHeader("Content-Type","application/x-www-form-urlencoded");


  完整index.jsp代码:

<%@ page contentType="text/html;charset=UTF-8" language="java" %>
<html>
<head>
    <title>Hello Ajax</title>
    <script type="text/javascript">
        var xmlHttpRequest;
        function ajaxSubmit() {
            if (window.XMLHttpRequest) {//in JavaScript, if it exists(not null and undifine), it is true.
                // code for IE7+, Firefox, Chrome, Opera, Safari
                xmlHttpRequest = new XMLHttpRequest();
            } else if (window.ActiveXObject) {
                // code for IE6, IE5
                xmlHttpRequest = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP");
            } else {
                //very rare browsers, can be ignored.
            }

            //also, we can handle IE5,6 first using:
            /*
             if (window.ActiveXObject) {
             //code for IE6, IE5
             }
             else {
             //code for others
             }
             */

            //send request
            if (null != xmlHttpRequest) {
                //get parameters from DOM
                var value1 = document.getElementById("value1Id").value;
                var value2 = document.getElementById("value2Id").value;

                //1. prepare request
//                xmlHttpRequest.open("GET", "AjaxServlet?v1=" + value1 + "&v2=" + value2, true);//GET
                xmlHttpRequest.open("POST", "AjaxServlet", true);//POST
                // XMLHttpRequest.prototype.open = function(method,url,async,user,password) {};

                //2. set callback function to handle events
                xmlHttpRequest.onreadystatechange = ajaxCallback;

                //3. do sending request action
//                xmlHttpRequest.send(null);//GET

                //POST
                xmlHttpRequest.setRequestHeader("Content-Type","application/x-www-form-urlencoded");
                xmlHttpRequest.send("v1=" + value1 + "&v2=" + value2);//POST requset needs params here, for GET, just leave params empty or set it to null.


            }


        }

        function ajaxCallback() {
            //alert("test");//this alert will show several times when click the button.
            if (4 == xmlHttpRequest.readyState && 200 == xmlHttpRequest.status) {
                var responseText = xmlHttpRequest.responseText;
                document.getElementById("div1").innerHTML = responseText;
            }
        }
    </script>

</head>
<body>
<input type="button" value="get content from server" onclick="ajaxSubmit();"><br>
<input type="text" value="" id="value1Id">
<input type="text" value="" id="value2Id">

<div id="div1"></div>
</body>
</html>
index.jsp

 

参考资料:

  圣思园张龙老师JavaWeb视频教程64 POST与GET方式提交Ajax请求的区别,深度解读HTTP协议.